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"Why We Need Alternatives." Chronicle Of Higher Education 57.12 (2010): B9-B10. Most Human Diseases Are Unique to Us, and Testing on Other Species Is Downright Misleading.
By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural -- as well as man-made -- exposures (SOT, 6).
In this paper, I will present both sides of the argument and……
Animal testing has been proved to be beneficial regarding a lot of diseases and this cannot be denied by anyone.
Ruesch, Hans (1989) 1000 Doctors (and many more) Against Vivisection Civis: London . Some of these animals are also the ones that are abandoned and are kept in pounds or shelters (Kate Kristoff).
Over the years there have been hotly debated arguments over the use…… CONSUMER POLICY: SPLITS OVER PLANNED CHANGES TO COSMETICS DIRECTIVE., European Report, . UK legislation requires that researchers refine their procedures to keep suffering to the minimum, ensure the number of animals is reduced to the minimum required for meaningful results, and seek to replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives where appropriate" (the oyal Society, 2004). The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Animal Senses Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.
Those who oppose animal testing believe that it is inhumane treatment of living things. Minnesota student group defends using animals for research purposes., University Wire, . Sometimes it is right to sacrifice animals for our own well-being., Independent, , pp 21. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion). Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. There is strong evidence supporting this claim though technology today allows scientists to bypass animal testing in many cases. These developments are sometimes attributed partly to the fact that scientists and researchers have been able to use animals as "guinea pigs" for testing new medications or treatment methods before passing them to human volunteers. The term "vivisection" is now used as a blanket term for all animal experiments, although it originally only referred to those that involved cutting the animals (Wikipedia, 2005) Many dictionaries and encyclopedias now use the term "vivisection" to describe any type of animal experiment that causes suffering, whether it involves cutting or not, although those animal experimentors dislike this trend as they feel that "vivisection" is a term that spurs emotion (Croce, 1991). [Read More] References Croce M., (1991) Pietro, Vivisection or Science - a choice to make BETA Tipografica s. [Online website] Available at Testing101.asp[Accessed on: 25/09/2005] Karen Lee Stevens - Animal Testing Alternatives. "Ethical And Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing And Research." Plos One 6.9 (2011): e24059. Proponents and opponents constantly argue over both ethical concerns and the effectiveness of the practice of using animals for scientific research. [Read More] References Anonymous - Animal Testing 101. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(1), 111- Animal Testing Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh Its Positives and Therefore Should Not be Allowed Many cures and treatments have been developed in the last three hundred years due to advances in medical technology. (Cover Story)." Drug Discovery & Development 13.4 (2010): 10-13. Research Study Conducted for Coalition for Medical Progress. The fact that that many animals suffer as a result of animal testing is indisputable. Human use of animals for experimental purposes dates from pre-Christian times, and Alexandrian physicians Herophilus and Erasistratus were the first to use living animals during the 3rd century B. During the 1820's and 1830's, Francois Magendie conducted extensive animal experiments that led to notable advance in neuro-physiology (Animal Pp). Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. Even more amazing is the fact that most of the medicine that she uses had been created with the help of animal testing (Owen). ithout this research, many of the life-saving therapies available today would not exist. Andreas Verslius created the modern science of anatomy by systematic dissection of and experimentation on living animals during the mid-1500's, and illiam Harvey's demonstration of the circulation of the blood in 1628, relied on a combination of dissection and animal experimentation as well (Animal Pp). PETA & ASPCA The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. "Animal Research Means Medical Progress." Accessed 02 November 2012, from Ringach, D. "The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research" the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Vol 342, No 4. (2004) "The use of non-human animals in research: a guide for scientists." Accessed 02 November, 2012 from controversy with regard to preclinical testing on animals, as society has reached a point where the ethics behind testing drugs on animals makes it difficult and almost impossible for researchers to continue to perform their studies. Even though testing on animals can be considered cruel by some, the reality is that it is one of the principal reasons why society as a whole was able to produce some of the drugs that helped mankind evolve rapidly during recent decades. Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal Production. Animal Advocacy Organizations There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Animal ights & Testing The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405 Regan, T., & Singer, P. Therefore, the question is often related to the ethical and moral nature of testing on monkeys. [Read More] References AAVVS (2012) "Problems with animal research" Accessed 02 November 2012, from OSLh K6E/b.6456997/k.3D74/Problems_with_Animal_Americans for Medical Progress (2012). Food and Drug Administration agency are unhesitant about supporting testing in animals because this is in most cases the most effective way to find out more about a drug's potential effects on a human. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.