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List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname or group/organization name, e.g.(Bureau van Dijk, 2010; Datamonitor, 2009; Simpson, 2010) (Rule 6.16 p. It is acceptable to abbreviate long names in the second and following in-text references.
) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage. ) for the newspaper homepage and use the homepage URL after the words "Retrieved from". A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. ) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Instead, give an in-text citation only using the following model: Joe Smith (personal communication, November 18, 2006) informed me that the server had crashed several hours ago.
In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/": This link will allow a reader to link to for more information about the e-book. Please be aware, however, that the full text of encyclopedia may not actually be available at the publisher's homepage. In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!
Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add a retrieval statement in its place: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title (4) Retrieval statement. Books, Journals, DVDs) are italicised, with the first letter of the first word of the main title and the subtitle in capital letters. Exception: Journal titles (including magazines and newspapers) are italicised and all key words in the journal title begin with a capital letter.
Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time (Publication Manual, p. If an author has published more than one item in the same year, add lower case letters a, b, c etc. The order is arranged alphabetically by title in the references list, but exclude 'A' or 'The' when it is the first word (Publication Manual, p.
Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) in the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words.
You need to cite to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay and to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources.
A citation must appear in two places in your essay: in the body of your text ("in-text citations") and in the reference list (at the end of your paper).
Capitalize all major words in titles within the body of the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). Note: In reference lists, capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, and proper nouns.
) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage. Retrieved from Follow the correct formatting for the type of publication (e.g. The plate/image number (or, if this number is not available, the page number on which the image is printed) should follow the name of the publisher as shown.
a newspaper, a scholarly journal) the review is taken from, including the DOI if one is available.