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Throughout Nietzsche's work Beyond Good and Evil the reader discovers how the different themes apply to his concept of either master or slave morality.Nietzsche was an atheist, believing that Christi...
Part 5: Natural History of Morals He starts by claiming that morality is not objective, and no philosopher has ever succeeded in defining it beyond what applies to their time, village, country, church etc.
Furthermore, he states that we see much less than we believe, taking in only a larger generalisation of things and using prior-knowledge and bias to fill in the rest (comparing this to seeing a tree).
He then goes on to explain the ladder of sacrifice which religion creates (first demanding sacrifice of one's kin, then oneself, then our will, freedom and strength) and of which we have reached a new rung, it now demands we paradoxically sacrifice God.
He then finally concludes with how religion can mean different things to different people (or classes), but how Christianity values reversing our morals , devaluing our "noble instincts".
However such spirits must not let themselves be attached to anything and be constantly testing themselves, he calls the new generation of philosophers "attempters" (versucher) who reject dogmatism etc.
Part 3: What is Religious Firstly Nietzsche thoroughly dissects Christianity, claiming all the demands and self-denial it creates is what push people to dreams of Saintism.
He asserted that humanity must rise "beyond good and evil" and regain respect for nobility and power if they were to excel.
Nietzsche wanted a social system with a "leader type", a genuinely superior ruling class, with slaves as its basis, at the opposite social extreme.
Part 4: Epigrams and Interludes There is no coherent structure or theme to all the short epigrams presented, they touch on a manner of subjects which Nietzsche thought were not fleshed out enough (or important enough) to discuss elsewhere.
Some more general themes in separate epigrams include: morality being born of inner struggle, women and their differences from men (often pointing them out to being emotional and "snakelike", slightly misogynistically), Christianity, sexuality (many of references to homosexuality), German national identity, teaching of the new generation of men and philosophers, etc.