Black Driving Paper Profiling Racial Term While

A 2012 study found that black drivers speed more often and more severely than white drivers, and concluded that "citizen risk for specific police behavior is partially attributable to differential behavior prior to the encounter." In a 2016 report, Vice News and a group from the Seton Hall Law School found that 70 percent of all police traffic stops in Bloomfield New Jersey were against black and Latino drivers even though 60 percent of the residents were white.According to Bloomfield's police director, Samuel A De Maio, violations were 576 against Hispanics, 574 against blacks and 573 against whites from a recent period.There have also been accusations of excessive force by police officers against black drivers.

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A number of well-known African Americans have described experiences they characterize as of being racially profiled in their cars and some have related it to the phenomenon of DWB.

In his memoir, The Sky Is Not the Limit: Adventures of an Urban Astrophysicist, prominent astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson recounts his many encounters with police on the road and their ambiguous reasons for pulling him over.

After learning about other African American physicists who have had similar encounters, he writes, "we were guilty not of DWI (driving while intoxicated), but of other violations none of us knew were on the books: DWB (driving while black), WWB (walking while black), and of course, JBB (just being black)." Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina, the only African American Republican in the Senate, spoke on the Senate floor in 2016 about how he experienced racial profiling while driving in his car, adding "I do not know many African-American men who do not have a very similar story to tell -- no matter their profession, no matter their income, no matter their disposition in life." In 2015 comedian Chris Rock posted a series of different pictures on Twitter of himself in the driver's seat of his car while being pulled over by police, captioning one of his posts, "Stopped by the cops again wish me luck." The posts came just a year after racial profiling in the U. CNN's Don Lemon stipulated that "Chris Rock may be in the middle of a case of Driving While Black." Likely referring to the death of Sandra Bland, she spoke about her worries that her nephew might be harmed by a police officer after being pulled over.

The NYTimes documented her post in an article titled "‘I Won’t Be Silent’: Serena Williams on the Fear of Driving While Black." Other prominent African Americans who have recounted their personal experiences of racial profiling include but are not limited to Barack Obama, Johnnie Cochran, Will Smith, Gary Sheffield, and Eric Holder.

New Jersey later received public attention for its racial profiling on the highway in 1998 when police wounded three men during a traffic stop, all of whom were either black or Hispanic, prompting then New Jersey Governor Christine Whitman to let a federal judge monitor the NJ police.

As a result, thousands of documents were released to the public, displaying ample evidence that police were instructed to use race-based tactics to identify and stop possible drug couriers on the highway.

In a pretextual stop (also called an investigatory stop), officers pull over people citing a minor issue, then start asking unrelated questions.

University of Kansas professor Charles Epp in a study found that black drivers were three times more likely than whites to be subjected to "pretextual" stops, and five times more likely to be searched during them.

"Driving while black", abbreviated as DWB, is a phrase in American English that refers to the racial profiling of African American drivers.

The phrase implies that a motorist might be stopped by a police officer because of a racial bias and not because the driver has violated any traffic law.

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