On the other hand, a company does not need to implement a quality management model to use the management practices associated with the concept.The literature review of TQM practices (Figure 1), illustrated that management practices associated with TQM can be grouped in: those that deal with company s processes, those that involve personnel management, and those that include tools and techniques.
TQM Practices Several authors made different propositions about what constitutes TQM practices.
Figure 1 indicates some of the more recent studies and the quality practices the authors considered part of TQM.
The results of the study may have closed this gap partially by illustrating information on how Peruvian companies are using TQM practices and whether any significant differences exist in this use considering industrial sector and company size.
The research study represents a first approximation to the analysis of the use of TQM practices in Peru.
Dow, Samson, and Ford (1999) indicated that most of the studies about TQM included concepts developed by quality pioneers to define quality practices.
Case Studies Of Tqm Implementation In Manufacturing And Service Sectors Including It
However, such use could limit the number of practices and did not allow for adequate coverage of the whole concept.Research in Peru about quality management is scarce.48 TQM Practices in Manufacturing and Service Peruvian Companies The literature review reflected no research related to the use of TQM practices in Peru.Keywords: TQM; quality, industrial sector, company size, Peru Introduction Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy, diffused all over the world, with the objective of improving the operative and business performance of the organizations, by offering a systemic approach to continually improve the operative activities to continually fulfill customers requirements (Agus, 2005; Powell, 1995).The philosophy is particularly attractive because of the focus on quality, which offers the promise of improvement of an organization s performance.However, until 1993, only one third of the 500 largest companies in the United States declared having perceived benefits of TQM implementation (Ahire, Waller, & Golhar, 1996).The poor results could be relate to a bad design or to not taking into account certain variables that could be relevant for the success of this implementation (Tata & Prasad, 1998).Do any significant differences exist in the use of TQM practices between companies in the manufacturing and service sector? Do any significant differences exist in the use of TQM practices among small, medium, and large companies?From these research questions, related to the orientation and structure of the company, the following hypotheses resulted: H1.Operative performance refers to customer satisfaction or product quality, while business performance relates to financial results.TQM practices became a means to improve business performance of the companies (Agus, 2005; Brah, Wong, & Rao, 2000; Chow-Chua, Goh, & Wan, 2003).