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Field-dependent factors are usually listed as an issue to be tackled not only when comparison across disciplines are made, but also when different fields of research of one discipline are being compared.For example, in medicine, among other factors, the number of authors, the number of references, the article length, and the presence of a colon in the title influence the impact; while in sociology the number of references, the article length, and title length are among the factors.The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form.
In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.
Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life", that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.
Citation patterns are also known to be affected by unethical behavior of both the authors and journal staff.
Such behavior is called impact factor boosting, and was reported to involve even the top-tier journals.
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.
Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).
Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.
These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.
Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, the arts, and the humanities.
Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include: The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail.