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Most people would jump to the conclusion to multiply twenty five by three, however if we place all three cakes in the oven at a time we find it would take the same time to bake three cakes as it would take to bake one.This example highlights the need to properly conceptualize the problem and look at it from different viewpoints, before rushing to solutions.This chapter on problem solving will first differentiate between well-defined and ill-defined problems, then explain uses of conceptualizing and visually representing problems within the context of problem solving and finally we will discuss how mental set may impede successful problem solving.
Since, critical thinking and expertise enable us to draw upon efficient techniques to come up with effective solutions in problem solving, we will discuss their relationship to one another at the end of the problem solving chapter. We may be confronted with problems such as: needing to determine the best route to get to work, what to wear for an interview, how to do well on an argumentative essay or needing to find the solution to a quadratic equation.
A problem is present in situations where there is a desire to solve the problem, however the solution is not obvious to the solver.
found that solving ill-defined problems brought forth different skills than those found in well-structured problems.
In well-structured problems domain knowledge and justification skills highly predicted problem-solving scores, whereas scores on ill-structured tasks were predictive of argumentation, attitudes and metacognition in an astronomy simulation.
An example of an ill-defined problem may be “how do we solve climate change?
Cognitive Problem Solving Skills Shylock A Villain Or Victim Essay
” or “how should we resolve poverty” as there is no one right answer to these problems.
These findings highlight the benefits of problem-based learning on understanding and defining problems in science.
Given the positive effects of defining problems this education approach may also be applied to our next sub-topic of conceptualizing problems.
We are constantly surrounded by ambiguities, challenges or situations in our daily lives that require our problem solving skills, critical thinking and expertise, our chapter seeks to provide an overview of these three topics.
We will discuss the qualities of each topic, their relation to each other, the experience for the learner, applications to the classroom and potential issues that arise when engaging in cognition.