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From a mutual perspective, "the needs of both the self and the others are coordinated, and a mutual, third-person perspective is adopted in which both sets of interests are taken into account."(p. Adoption of the mutual perspective is very important for high quality problem solving.Individual and group decision making occurs throughout the conflict resolution process.
The authors identify common biases that interfere with good decision making.
These include irrationally escalating commitments, assuming resources are fixed and outcomes must be win-lose, using information because it is available rather than relevant, and overconfidence.
Diagnosis emphasizes identifying the parties' underlying interests.
The goal of problem solving approaches is to find mutually acceptable solutions to problems.
Research also shows that problem solving approaches are more likely to be used by people in fair and cohesive organizations that recognize success and are open to innovation.
Problem solving is more likely when parties are concerned for the others welfare, as well as their own.An egoistic perspective sees the other party as an object, and typical reactions include whining, ignoring, or hitting.The unilateral perspective recognizes the other as an individual, but interacts with them in terms of obedience, command or avoidance.These skills are essential for developing and maintaining relationships with others.How well these skills are learned during childhood will influence the type and quality of the relationships that the child forms throughout his/her life. Jumping in too soon to solve the problem does not allow the child to discover the various skills needed as they grow. It is important to provide young children with opportunities to work on their problem solving skills and to offer gentle guidance and encouragement when they are struggling.They describe each component, and develop a simple model of their interaction within the broader conflict resolution process.The problem solving process involves two main parts: diagnosing the conflict, and developing alternative solutions.Cognitive psychologists describe problem solving as a four stage process: Identifying the problem, generating alternative strategies, selecting and implementing a solution, and evaluating consequences.Cognitive psychology also suggests a model of interpersonal negotiation strategies that focuses on the different developmental levels of perspective taking by the parties.