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Are public officials in Georgia reluctant to ask women in the private sector for bribes, knowing that they condemn corruption and are less likely to pay? Their research, however, also showed that data from the World Values Survey indicates that women are less tolerant towards behaviours that could be described as corrupt.Esarey and Chirillo (2013), using data from the World Values Survey, found that context matters.When comparing data from the Gender Inequality Index included in the United Nations’ Human Development Report with the Control of Corruption Indicator of the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators (both for 2013), we find a negative correlation between corruption control and gender inequality.
However, the idea that women are less corrupt than men is probably not without grounds.
Beyond anecdotal evidence, is there a systematic relationship between gender inequality and corruption?
The correlation only shows that higher gender inequality is observed together with higher levels of corruption.
It does not control for other potential explanatory variables and says nothing about causality. (2001) – first published as a World Bank working paper in 1999 – and Swamy et al. The first study included controls for civil liberties, income and education, and found that lower levels of corruption were indeed associated with a higher proportion of women in parliaments. (2001) reached the same conclusion, while also showing that lower levels of corruption come along with more women in senior positions in public administration and higher shares of women in the labour force.
In autocracies and where corruption is endemic, women condone corruption as much as men do.
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In democracies, where corruption tends to be stigmatised to a higher degree, women disapprove of corruption more than men, and are less likely to engage in corrupt practices.However, even including controls and looking at change in the variables, the type of data and methodology used in these studies do not allow any firm conclusion concerning a causal relationship between gender and corruption.Granting there was a causal relationship, it still would be necessary to determine its direction.” Interviews with taxi drivers – arguably the experts on the issue – found similar reactions in Colombia (Fink and Boehm 2011).These reactions reflect a widespread idea: that women are less corrupt than men.About the contentious question of nature versus nurture, research finds evidence for both explanations: some differences are innate; others are a product of the environment.In the available research, the question of whether there are gender differences with respect to corruption is unpacked into three specific issues: Concerning attitudes, survey responses suggest that women show lower tolerance towards corruption. (2001), using data from a micro-survey of business firms in Georgia, showed that a firm is significantly less likely to report requests for unofficial payments by public officials when the owner is a woman.The belief that women are less corrupt than men is widespread, even among development specialists.Variations in risk aversion and reciprocal behaviour may partially explain gender differences in corrupt behaviour and provide some guidance for policy choice.Clarifying these issues requires asking the prior question of whether women are actually less corrupt than men.We need to understand possible gender differences in corrupt behaviour and in attitudes towards corruption.