Dengue Research Papers

Currently, dengue is endemic to 128 countries, mostly developing nations, posing a risk to approximately 3.97 billion people annually. The life cycle of Aedes mosquito depending upon the extent of feeding lasts for 8–10 days at room temperature.A recent dengue distribution model has estimated 390 million dengue infections annually, out of which 96 million cases occurred apparently [6, 7]. niveus have been found to play a role as secondary vectors [8]. It consists of two phases: aquatic (larvae, pupae) and terrestrial (eggs, adults) phase. albopictus has become an increasingly important vector as it can easily adapt to new environments, including temperate regions. Aegypti free countries has created opportunities for dengue viruses to enter new locations and cause disease [10].The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated.

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It is expressed as a single polyprotein precursor, which is co/posttranslationally cleaved by viral and host proteases (Figure 1).

The 5′ and 3′ NCRs contain secondary structures and conserved sequences, which are involved in regulation of viral replication.

A dramatic worldwide expansion of the DENV has occurred due to rapid urbanization, increase in international travel, lack of effective mosquito control measures, and globalization [3].

Though there is no approved drug, an update by Sanofi Pasteur reveals licensure of its vaccine in Mexico, Brazil, Philippines, and El Salvador [4].(2) Epidemiology.

This single polyprotein then gets processed by viral (green arrow) and host (black arrow) proteases.

The structural proteins (pr M and E) remain anchored on the luminal side of the ER membrane.

The viral RNA is translated as a single polyprotein consisting of structural (light brown-C, pr M, and E) and nonstructural (dark brown-NS1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, and 5) protein components.

Symbols C, pr M, E, NS, and PM denote capsid protein, precursor membrane protein, envelope protein, nonstructural proteins, and plasma membrane, respectively.

The 5′UTR (~100 nucleotides) has a type I methylated cap structure (m7G5′ppp5′A) but the 3′UTR (~450 nucleotides) lacks a terminal polyadenylate tail.

Protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER), and the structural proteins get anchored to the ER on the luminal side, where assembly and maturation of virion occur (Figure 1) [2, 11].

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