Essay On The History Of Civil Society 1767

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Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh Mac Fhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1723 – 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.

Ferguson was sympathetic to traditional societies, such as the Highlands, for producing courage and loyalty.

Ferguson combines a subtle analysis of the emergence of modern commercial society with a critique of its abandonment of civic and communal virtues.

Central to Ferguson's theory of citizenship are the themes of conflict, play, political participation and military valour.

بالنسبة لي فإن الفصلين الثاني " تاريخ الأمم البدائية " والثالث "تاريخ السياسة والفنون " هما الأكثر رسوخا معرفيا..

لأنه يقدم في الثالث تحديدا تشريحا دقيقاكتاب شامل مقسم على ست فصول وكل فصل يقسم إلى عدد من الأجزاء تناول بشكل تصاعدي ثم تنازلي تشكل المجتمعات الخاصة منذ بدء الحضارة بداية نسج القوانين وتباين الحقوق ثم انحدار بعض المجتمعات وأفولها لتفسخها على عدد من الأصعدة الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والسياسية وغيرها..Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) was one of the central figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.His Essay on the History of Civil Society (first published in 1767) is a bold and novel attempt to reclaim the tradition of active citizenship and apply it to the modern state.He considers human beings in all kinds of settings, from what he chooses to call "savage" (or we might call "nomadic") society to what he calls "polished" or "commercial" society.In all these settings, he tries to consider how different forms of government, economics or culture might affect our innate individual power of freedom and glory.He was himself a soldier—so he sees martial valour as the paradigm of all valour.He was classically learned—so he sees Roman citizenship as the paradigm of all citizenship.He is faithful that even in the most corrupt, slavish or destitute nations, the fire of human passion can never be finally extinguished.Ferguson is a fine writer, and I mean it when I say the book is stirring: Man may mistake the objects of his pursuit; he may misapply his industry, and misplace his improvements.His fascination with the theory of unintended consequences as a model of historical causality does not deter him from insisting on the irreplaceable value of individual, public-minded members of political society.كتاب شامل مقسم على ست فصول وكل فصل يقسم إلى عدد من الأجزاء تناول بشكل تصاعدي ثم تنازلي تشكل المجتمعات الخاصة منذ بدء الحضارة بداية نسج القوانين وتباين الحقوق ثم انحدار بعض المجتمعات وأفولها لتفسخها على عدد من الأصعدة الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والسياسية وغيرها..إنه لا يشرح الأمر من مفهوم نظري فقط ولكنه يطرح نماذج مهمة قد تسمع ببعضها للمرة الأولى.

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