Tags: Moral Values Are Powerfully Affected ByAp World Exam 2012 Essay QuestionsBusiness Plan Free SoftwareCreative Writing Ideas Ks2Essay On Some Like It HotPhd Thesis Microbial Fuel CellWriting Narrative Essay Apa
In India, like most developing countries, there exists a system of “private tuition”1 parallel to the formal system of education to supplement academic support and to overcome school inadequacies.
In the context of school-level analysis by (Sen, 2001), it was observed that a wide practice of private tuition in primary schools reinforces the inefficiency of the education system at the primary level.
The biggest sufferers of the system are children from economically and socially disadvantaged and backward classes.
The present paper is based on empirical data collected during 2005–2006 as a part of larger research study on secondary education.
The paper examines the nature, extent and trends of private tutoring in secondary education in India and also discusses reasons and some policy issues.
Interestingly, Uttar Pradesh shows a lower level of propensity towards private tuition compared to Kerala and Maharashtra, but in Grade X a high majority of students attend private tutoring.
The differential trends in private tuition phenomena in sampled states can be attributed to the social, economic, educational and political characteristics of the states, even if quality of secondary education is a common issue in all the states.
Research studies on private tuition are few and far between, even if the phenomena of private tuition are widespread and predominant. Biswal (1999), in his paper on “Private Tutoring and Public Corruption: The Cost-Effective Education System for Developing Countries”, examines the issue of private tutoring with an assumption that teachers in developing countries are poorly paid despite their status in society and also despite the fact that up to 80% of public expenditure on education goes on their salaries.
He considers that private tuition is a result of poor teaching, low monitoring at the workplace, and conscious efforts to create a market for private tutoring or coaching.
The extent of private tutoring is significantly higher in Grade X compared in Grade IX.
The average percentage of students seeking private tuition is 58.8% as against 32% in Grade IX.