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Since a state cannot function under the law unless it is recognised by the members of the community of nations, such diplomatic recognition is often considered another property of the state.Further, most political theorists emphasise on the purpose or end as an important element of the state.He defined the state as “a community of persons, more or less numerous; permanently occupying a definite territory, independent of external control, and possessing an organised government, to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.” Although the scholars differ among themselves as to the definition of the state, they are at one with regard to the characteristics of the state.
President Woodrow Wilson’s definition of the state is “a people organised for law within a definite territory.” Harold J.
Laski defines the state as “a territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming, within its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions.”According to R. Mac Iver, the state is- “An association which, acting through law as promulgated by a government, endowed to this end with coercive power, maintains within a community, territorially demarcated the universal external conditions of social order.”Sir Thomas Holland’s definition is more elaborate:“A state is a numerous assemblage of human beings generally occupying a certain territory, amongst whom the will of the majority of an ascertainable class of persons is, by the strength of such a majority or class, made to prevail against any of their number who opposes it.”J. Garner’s definition is the most acceptable one because it contains all the attributes of the state.
The plenty of food, clothes and shelter led to organised political and social institutions.
These river valley states were like so many early empires separated from each other. Their responsibilities to the subjects ended with realising taxes from them.
If the Greek city states were known for liberty, democracy and local independence, the Roman empire earned eminence for unity, order and universal law.
While Greece had democracy without unity, Rome had unity minus democracy.
They ruled over the state with the strength of the sword.
When the sword became blunt, the King was replaced by some more powerful one. The third stage in the evolution of the state was the Greek city-states.
Initially, Rome was a small state like the Greek city-states. The common people were called the Plebeians and they had no share in the government. Rome could not go much ahead in democracy because she was involved in warfare with the neighbouring states.
It grew up on the fertile plains of the Tiber in 253 B. Monarchy yielded place to the republic in about 500 B. After conquering the enemy states, Rome began to advance in territory both towards the west and the south.