In fact, though, it seems we find it easier to persuade ourselves that what we have achieved is worthwhile and that's what most of us do, evaluating highly something whose achievement has cost us dear - whether other people think it's much cop or not!
This method of reducing dissonance is known as 'effort justification.' If we put effort into a task which we have chosen to carry out, and the task turns out badly, we experience dissonance.
Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort.
The women then rated the desirability of eight household products that ranged in price from $15 to $30.
Being paid $20 provides a reason for turning pegs, and there is therefore no dissonance.
The Kite Runner Essay Loyalty - Evaluating Compliance Strategies Essay
Life is filled with decisions, and decisions (as a general rule) arouse dissonance.For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys.Both alternatives have their good points and bad points.Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex.In the 'mild embarrassment' condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like 'virgin' and 'prostitute.' In the 'severe embarrassment' condition, they had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage.This produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance.For example, when people smoke (behavior) and they know that smoking causes cancer (cognition), they are in a state of cognitive dissonance.Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions.In other words, they were more likely than participants in the other two conditions to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the unchosen alternative.The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative.People have several ways to reduce dissonance that is aroused by making a decision (Festinger, 1964). As noted earlier, this is often very difficult, so people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers.