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Ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is a process of one or more cyclic olefins transformation to polymer catalyzed by metal carbene compounds.
The first “well-defined” ruthenium catalyst was synthesized by Grubbs in 1992.
The alkylidene source was 3,3-diphenylcyclopropene  (Scheme 3).
Cyclic olefins form polymers (copolymers) of a high tacticity in a presence of this catalyst .
Catalytic systems prepared from compounds based on transition metals such as vanadium VCl), described by Casey and Fisher [18, 19], Katz was the first who showed the ability of a metal-carbene complex to catalyze the process of metathesis polymerization independently without additional compounds .
Living polymerization with ring opening metathesis is terminated by removing the transition metal from the end of the growing chain and its further deactivation.
Deactivation in this case involves the formation of a complex unable to initiate polymerization .
Acrylate derivatives of 2-butene-1,4-diol, succinic anhydride or butyl acrylate can also stop the growth of the macromolecule .
ROMP, as well as most metathesis reactions, is reversible, so the described transformations can proceed both in the forward and backward directions.
The reaction proceeds simultaneously in two directions.
One of them provides two polymer chains with the active ruthenium on both.