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“Hindu” and “Hinduism” will be used to designate any portion of the tradition.The label “Hindu philosophy” will be reserved for the philosophical elements of Hinduism.If it were the case that a belief in karma is common to all Hindu philosophies, and only Hindu philosophies, then we would have a clear doctrinal criterion for identifying Hinduism.
Moreover, some of them are not common to all Hindu thinkers.
The rich diversity of views within the Hindu tradition that overlap with non-Hindu views makes identifying “Hinduism” on the basis of a shared, comprehensive doctrine difficult if not impossible.
He reaches back to texts, which today can only be reckoned ancient, brilliantly characterizing their fundamental precepts and attitude to inner and outer worlds.
Weber lacked the knowledge to interrelate religions to social, political and economic currents according to today’s much richer scholarly sources.
The term “Hindu philosophy” is often used loosely in this philosophical or doctrinal sense, but this usage is misleading.
There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all Hindus that distinguishes their view from contrary philosophical views associated with other Indian religious movements such as Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology.Hence, historians of Indian philosophy typically understand the term “Hindu philosophy” as standing for the collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection to certain core Hindu religious texts (the Vedas), and they do not identify “Hindu philosophy” with a particular comprehensive philosophical doctrine.Hindu philosophy, thus understood, not only includes the philosophical doctrines present in Hindu texts of primary and secondary religious importance, but also the systematic philosophies of the Hindu schools: Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṅkhya, Yoga, Pūrvamīmāṃsā and Vedānta.‘Indian religiosity, theoretically and practically, was the cradle of the most world denying form of religious ethic that the world has ever brought forth.’ Certain weaknesses of his analysis have received attention in previous conferences and publications: his overreliance on the sacred texts rather than on how religion was lived, the biases of western Indology, his conceptualization of caste.Equally, Weber thought a modern India would emerge in the process of nation state formation, just as he noted the emergence of modern capitalism in Shanghai in 1911. Minimally it stands for a tradition of Indian philosophical thinking.However, it could be interpreted as designating one comprehensive philosophical doctrine, shared by all Hindu thinkers.Moreover, it is not evident that it is embraced by all sources that we consider Hindu.For instance, the doctrine of karma seems to be absent from much of the Vedas.South and East Asia are now shaping capitalism in the twenty-first century according to their own requirements.Hinduism and Buddhism marks Weber’s intense preoccupation with the religions and ethics of South Asia and their diffusion throughout the region.