Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a given subject; others are selective, including only what they think worthwhile.Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field.
The first academic journal was Journal des sçavans (January 1665), followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (March 1665), and Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences (1666).
The first fully peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations (1733).
Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, and others do not publish review articles.
Such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys.
Some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years.
Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions, sometimes planned years in advance.An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews.Several of those publications however, and in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived (under 5 years). Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature (1869) and Science (1880), the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of ar Xiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, and the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, and unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so.They are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field.Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the research books published by scholars; unlike articles, book reviews tend to be solicited.The peer review can take from several weeks to several months.Review articles, also called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals.The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg (the first editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society), is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences." The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed.