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Over the past sixty years the rules have changed to incorporate new standards and practices.This guide is based on the Publishing Manual of the American Psychological Assiociation, now in it's sixth edition.
When preparing an assignment or research paper, it is vital that you acknowledge the resources you have used, as failure to do so constitutes plagiarism.
Also, readers may need to be able to retrieve the source information.
The following elements must be included in a reference: Works by the same author and published in the same year are distinguished by letters appended to the year.
The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to lead the reader to an exact item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually author’s last name, sometimes title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation.
In most research assignments, students are encouraged – or even required – to use the research of others, but proper credit must be given.
To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized.According to Sharpe and Rosell (2003), the dominant behaviours of the beavers were "travelling, foraging and being in the lodge" (p. If you paraphrase another author's ideas or research findings, integrate them as part of your text in your own words.When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are not required to provide a location reference (page number), but may do so if appropriate.Like when formatting citations, the most important thing to do when creating your reference list is to Most disciplines have a preferred format, and each journal will use a particular style. Age of initiation of collision between India and Asia: a review of stratigraphic data. So, what are the actual differences among these and other styles?If your professor does not specify which style you should use, choose one that is used in a journal in your discipline and use it consistently throughout your paper. The boxes below outline the similarities and differences among all of the styles above (which, remember, is not nearly an exhaustive list of all the styles that could be used).Make it very clear where their ideas end and yours begin.The list of references or bibliography will be at the end of your assignment/research paper, and will usually have the heading References or Bibliography. Note: Ensure that each citation in the text of your assignment also appears on your reference list, and that they are identical in spelling and year. Smith, and both were published in 1998, one will bear the date 1998a and the other 1998b, and in-text citations will reflect this.For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words.This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited.Your sources must be cited in the text of your assignment or research paper (in-text citations) where you have referred to information obtained from a particular source, and the list of references at the end of your assignment or research paper.Short citations included in the text of a research paper or assignment will enable your readers to find the full details of the source in the reference list.