Nine Case Studies In International Environmental Negotiation

Nine Case Studies In International Environmental Negotiation-63
IISD provides otherwise difficult-to-follow information, due to the multiplicity of meetings happening in parallel.The Bulletin is thus a well-regarded resource for all stakeholders, be it observers or negotiators.The membership of NGO constituencies has risen considerably, with an ever-increasing number of organisations being granted observer status since 1 in Berlin in 1995, as shown in Figure 5.1.

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The RINGO constituency7, which represents the research community and other independent organisations, seeks to inform the Parties of the availability of a large body of research, which can support the formulation of evidence-based policies.

The RINGO constituency aims at providing knowledge of the physical causes and consequences of climate change, as well as of the technological and policy tools that are being researched by RINGO organisations across the world8.

Undeniably, BINGO members also represent important economic interests for governments and are well represented, but it is important to highlight that their interests are far from homogeneous.

BINGO combines a large array of companies worldwide, from large emitters to technical solutions providers, the latter having grown in importance over the years.

negotiations even if only participating as observers.

There are a large number of observers from NGOs, some of which have been influential in contributing to the position of parties, not only due to lobbying, but also through other means, such as representing other levels of government (e.g.About 75% of the observer organisations are headquartered in Annex I countries, of which approximately a third are in the US (see The number of constituencies has increased over the years, from two initial constituencies to the present nine.The general position of the three largest groups (BINGO, ENGO and RINGO) is the following: The BINGO2 constituency represents the business and industry sector.This complex situation is critically assessed by Unmüßig (2011)11, who argues that environmental NGOs often operate in isolation when attending the negotiations.Despite the divisions, Unmüßig (2011)11 considers that the role of ENGOs as watchdogs is very important, and contributes to holding governments accountable.The first part of this knowledge package, "Role of Countries in Climate Negotiations" (POLIMP, 2015) presented an overview of the multilevel interaction of government stakeholders in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).The knowledge package below aims at providing a map of the size, coordination and influence of the non-governmental organisations involved as observers in the UNFCCC negotiations.Some of these initiatives have been very successful, which has subsequently led to greater visibility and influence.This section will give an overview of the has admitted 1758 observer NGOs (compared with 105 IGOs) (Figure 1).According to the aforementioned survey, the RINGO constituency is well perceived in its role of providing expertise, evaluate consequences and propose solutions, rather than for their influence on decision-makers6.Science supports the negotiations through the inputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCCC)9 to which a number of RINGO members, in their personal capacity, are also contributing10.

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