The Web site of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts.
In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date.
For books with multiple copyright dates, use the most recent. Note: For articles not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page number followed by a plus sign. For magazines published weekly or biweekly, give the complete date of publication (day month year). Or: The number of unwed mothers giving birth in their twenties has risen dramatically. (Agarwal) E-mail Author's Last Name, E-mail Author's First Name. "Title of Source." [Description or title of event where the speech took place], Date, Location. The book name may be abbreviated if they have a longer title (ex.
Note: All months except for May, June, and July are abbreviated to three letters followed by a period. Note: Date of Access at the end of the citation is an "optional element" that may be included at your discretion if you feel it is necessary and/or will help the reader to find the source. tab ID=T003&result List Type=RESULT_LIST&search Results Type=Single Tab&search Type=Advanced Search Form¤t Position=1&doc Id=GALE|A286256641&doc Type=Article&sort=RELEVANCE&content Segment=&prod Id=AONE&content Set=GALE|A286256641&search Id=R1&user Group Name=a04fu&in PS=true. For magazines published weekly or biweekly, give the complete date of publication (day month year). (Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births) Note: For the parenthetical reference use a shortened version of the title in place of the author's name. "Title of Source." [taken from subject line of e-mail] Received by Recipient's Name, Publication Date [date of e-mail]. "Re: Still-life Painting." Received by Janet Cummings, 6 Dec.
This guide will explain each core element and give examples.
The 8th edition of the MLA handbook changes the basis by which citations are created in a substantial way. Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.The second container should be cited as follows after the initial citation: Title of Second Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location. The term author is defined as the person or group primarily responsible for producing the work or the aspect of the work that is being cited.If the role of that person or group is something other than creating the work's main content, follow the name(s) with a label that describes the role i.e. Pseudonyms, including online user names, usually function as the author names.For all subsequent citations using the same version, leave out the version name. Note: In the eighth edition terms titles like editor, translator, etc. If a contributor cannot be described with a phrase, the role must be expressed as a noun followed by a comma (ex. The book name may be abbreviated if they have a longer title (ex. The publisher is the organization primarily responsible for producing the source or making it available to the public. Note: If citing the contribution of a specific person, start the work cited entry with that person's name. Date, Location [name of the place and city but omit the name of the city if it is part of the place's name].If two or more organizations are named in the source and they seem equally responsible for the work, cite each of them, separating the names with a forward slash (/). Optional element [medium of publication and/or materials of composition]. ("quoted in") before the indirect source you cite in your parenthetical reference. Zelizer 3-4) Note: If two authors have the same first initials, use the authors' full first names in the parenthetical references. Each core element should be followed by the above punctuation, unless it is the final element, which should end with a period. An element should be omitted from the entry if it is not relevant to the work being documented. Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.These changes reflect the difficulties in citing the ever growing forms of information that are sometimes difficult to fit into traditional style guidelines This is particularly true for non-print items and is intended to simplify the process of creating citations.