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Well, an argument is a set[br]of statements that together comprise a reason for a further statement.
So it's not morally right or morally good to believe something on[br]the basis of good reasons.
Similarly, it's not morally[br]wrong, or evil, or wicked to believe something on[br]the basis of a bad reason.
(intro music) Hello, I'm Paul Henne and I'm a philosophy graduate student at Duke University. Do I mean to say that your conclusion, or that all of the premises and the conclusion, are true?
And in this video I'm going to discuss validity, an important tool for evaluating deductive arguments. While this might sound like what I'm saying, validity has nothing to do with the truth of the conclusion or with how good the argument is in general. An argument is valid if and only if the truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion.
You've probably heard someone say "that's a valid point," or maybe in an argument you've heard a friend say something like "that's valid, but..." In these everyday uses of the term "valid" or "validity," people often mean to convey something like "that's a good point," or "that statement's true." But I won't be talking, in this video at least, about those usages. That is, validity is a property of arguments, such that if the premises of the arguments are true, then the conclusion must be true.
Instead, I'll be discussing the technical philosophical notion of validity, as in "a valid argument." You already know that an argument is a set of statements, and that one or more of these statements is offered in support of some other statements. So it's impossible for a valid argument to have all true premises unless the conclusion is also true. Statements can be true or false, like the statement "this square is orange." Arguments cannot be true or false.
Similarly, the third reason[br]also gives you a good reason to believe that[br]Monty won't be at the party.
If he's in Beijing, and[br]it's impossible to get here from Beijing in an afternoon,[br]then it's guaranteed that he won't be at the party.
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I teach at Northern Illinois University, and this is an introduction[br]to critical thinking. And third, what's the difference between deductive and ampliative arguments? Well, fundamentally, critical thinking is about making sure that you have good reasons for your beliefs. So suppose that you and your friend are talking about who's[br]gonna be at tonight's party.