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Multiple Sclerosis Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
When an antigen appears, those few specifically matched cells are stimulated to multiply into a full-scale army.
Later, to prevent this army from overexpanding, powerful mechanisms to suppress the immune response come into play.
Antibodies typically interact with circulating antigens, such as bacteria, but are unable to penetrate living cells.
Chief among the regulatory T cells are those known as helper (or inducer) cells.
Also, MS is the most common nerve disease to develop in young persons after birth, and it affects over 1 million young adults worldwide.
“Close relatives of a person with MS are 8 times more likely than average to develop the disease themselves, and children of a person with MS run 30 to 50 times the average risk.” (Waxman) Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40, but a diagnosis is often delayed. All his signs and symptoms are symptoms of dehydration. difference in how a virus and bacteria replicate and affect cells of the body? women are affected at almost twice the rate of men; however, among patients who develop the symptoms of MS at a later age, the gender ratio is more balanced.The disruption of nerve signals within the brain and spinal cord causes a variety of symptoms that may affect vision, sensation, and body movements.“These symptoms usually wax and wane through a series of relapses (episodes when symptoms suddenly get worse) alternating with remissions (periods of recovery, when symptoms improve).” (Brunnscheiler) For many patients, a long history of MS attacks over several decades leads to slowly progressing disability, but for others the disability is more rapid and severe.It is believed that, currently, there are approximately 250,000 to 350,000 people in the United States with MS diagnosed by a physician.(Boyden) This estimate suggests that approximately 200 new cases are diagnosed each week.Whites are more than twice as likely as other races to develop MS. It does this by seeking out and destroying the interlopers as they enter the body.Substances capable of triggering an immune response are called antigens.(Hofmann) “The immune system displays both enormous diversity and extraordinary specificity.” (Hofmann) It can recognize millions of distinctive foreign molecules and produce its own molecules and cells to match up with and counteract each of them.In order to have room for enough cells to match the millions of possible foreign invaders, the immune system stores just a few cells for each specific antigen.research, scientists now believe more than 100 million immune cells exist.For every virus or bacterium, there seems to be an immune cell specifically designed ... “ (Kaser) Yet another subset of regulatory T cells acts to turn off, or suppress, various immune system cells when their job is done.