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So Mokyr needs to take the reader across a more abrupt change than Mandelbaum did. First, he summarizes his findings on social values, letting the reader know the section is ending.Then he says the impact of values is complicated, a point he illustrates in the final sentences, while the impact of property rights and institutions seems to be more straightforward. The contempt in which physical labor, commerce, and other economic activity were held did not disappear rapidly; much of European social history can be interpreted as a struggle between wealth and other values for a higher step in the hierarchy.Note how this paragraph has required a minimal use of transition words; they should not be forced in where they do not belong.
So he begins the new section with a nod to the old one, noting the contrast. The French concepts of bourgeois gentilhomme and nouveau riche still convey some contempt for people who joined the upper classes through economic success.
In commerce, war and politics, what was functional was often preferred [within Europe] to what was aesthetic or moral, and when it was not, natural selection saw to it that such pragmatism was never entirely absent in any society. Even in the nineteenth century, the accumulation of wealth was viewed as an admission ticket to social respectability to be abandoned as soon as a secure membership in the upper classes had been achieved.
That’s an important part of line-by-line editing, which focuses on writing effective sentences and paragraphs. The last of these wars, he says, broke out in 149 B. and “ended with so complete a defeat for the Carthaginians that their city was destroyed . Neither, however, was it a flukish, transient product . Sometimes, however, you need to end one section with greater finality so you can switch to a different topic.
Effective transition sentences and paragraphs often glance forward or backward, signaling that you are switching sections. The best way to do that is with a few summary comments at the end of the section.
Follow each transition word or phrase with a comma: Causal transitions—also called cause-and-effect transitions—show how certain circumstances or events were caused by other factors, says Academic Help.
Writing Essay Topics - Research Paper Transitions
The first is the most important: Does the upcoming section actually belong in the next spot?Your readers will understand you are drawing this topic to a close, and they won’t be blindsided by your shift to a new topic in the next section.Here’s an example from economic historian Joel Mokyr’s book The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress.The type of transition words or phrases you use depends on the category of transition you need, as explained below.Probably the most common type, additive transitions are those you use when you want to show that the current point is an addition to the previous one, notes Edusson, a website that provides students with essay-writing tips and advice.Mokyr is completing a section on social values in early industrial societies.The next section deals with a quite different aspect of technological progress: the role of property rights and institutions.” Getting this architecture right is the goal of “large-scale editing,” which focuses on the order of the sections, their relationship to each other, and ultimately their correspondence to your thesis argument.It’s easy to craft graceful transitions when the sections are laid out in the right order.Transitions are a crucial element in any writing endeavor.Transitions help the paper to flow naturally, and help the reader make sense of the material.