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There were significant differences between the three levels.
However, due to the nonrandom nature of the sample, the results would not generalizable beyond the 162 participants in the study. In order to reduce threats to internal validity, the participants were asked to respond honestly and confidentiality was stressed so that the coaches might feel more at ease in responding. The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings.
This could present a threat to the internal validity in that participants might not have been entirely focused on completing the scale, but instead on coordinating practice, completing paperwork, etc.
Next, the student described specifics about the research design, including the sample, instrumentation, and data analysis.
Ecological and population generalizability were discussed. The student spoke at length on threats to internal validity.
There was no information, however, regarding the validity of the RLSS.
A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female coaches with regard to leadership behaviors.
In general, females scored much higher than did the male coaches.
A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three levels of coaching (junior high, high school, and college) with regard to leadership behavior in general.
There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers.
Coaching experience would greatly effect the responses of the participants, yet this was not considered in the study.