She adds that not all countries that allow same-sex marriage allow couples to jointly adopt and cautions against equating the right to marry with freedom from discrimination. Supreme Court ruled on June 26, 2015, that the Constitution grants same-sex couples the right to marry, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in the thirteen states where it remained banned. The ruling came less than two decades after President Bill Clinton signed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defined marriage as a union between a man and a woman, thereby denying same-sex couples federal marriage benefits, such as access to health care, social security, and tax benefits, as well as green cards for immigrant spouses of U. Despite these Supreme Court rulings, a debate continues in the United States between advocates of legal equality and individuals and institutions that object to same-sex marriages on the basis of religious belief. However, the court chose not to issue a broader ruling on whether businesses have a right to deny goods or services to LGBT people for religious reasons.
For example, in the United States, where same-sex couples can marry, federal law does not prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and employees can legally be fired on the basis of their sexual orientation in more than half of states. More than half of the countries that allow same-sex marriage are in Western Europe.
According to a 2016 survey [PDF] by the International LGBTI Association (ILGA), 54 percent of Canadians, 48 percent of Chileans, and 57 percent of Argentines are in favor of same-sex marriage.
In Central America, support is much lower: 33 percent of Costa Ricans, 28 percent of Nicaraguans, and 27 percent of Ecuadorians support same-sex marriage.
In 2013, Russia made it a crime to distribute “propaganda of nontraditional sexual relationships among minors.” More than a dozen people have been fined for violations, including participating in protests and sharing articles on social media.
Human rights groups say the law is a tool for anti-LGBT discrimination, and Europe’s top human rights court ruled that it is illegal in June 2017; though the decision is binding, the court has few means to enforce it.Support for same-sex marriage also remains low in the Caribbean, at just 16 percent in Jamaica and 23 percent in the Dominican Republic.In Bermuda, a British territory, the parliament reversed the supreme court’s legalization of same-sex marriage in 2017; that was challenged in local courts and could now go to a London court of appeals. The governments of Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Paraguay have enacted constitutional bans on same-sex marriage.“There’s an accumulation of moral pressure on member states to at least address the most overt forms of discrimination or violence.” Activists in the international arena have focused on antiviolence and antidiscrimination campaigns rather than same-sex marriage.“There’s no sensible diplomat who would think that pushing same-sex marriage on a country that’s not ready for it is a good idea,” says Dorf. territories, came amid dramatic shifts in public opinion: 67 percent of Americans polled in 2018 approved of same-sex marriage, up from 27 percent in 1996. In June 2013, the Supreme Court struck down the parts of DOMA that denied federal benefits to same-sex couples. Supreme Court ruled in favor of a Colorado baker who refused to make a wedding cake for a same-sex couple because of his religious beliefs, violating the state’s civil rights law.Support in Poland and Hungary, which both have constitutional bans on same-sex marriage, is 32 percent and 27 percent, respectively.At least ten other countries in Central and Eastern Europe have such prohibitions.The UN Human Rights Council, expressing “grave concerns” over violence and discrimination against individuals based on sexual orientation and gender identity, commissioned the body’s first study on the topic [PDF] in 2011.In 2014 the council passed a resolution to combat anti-LGBT violence and discrimination.Cuba, where homosexuality was once punished by internment in forced-labor camps, has changed markedly in recent years; the National Assembly passed an antidiscrimination law in 2013.Same-sex unions, however, are still not recognized.