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The instrument utilized was the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS) developed by Zhang, Jensen, and Mann in 1996.This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, positive feedback, and situational consideration.
This is not consistent with the type of data collected.
The RLSS used a Likert scale (ordinal), yet a MANOVA would be most applicable for normally distributed, quantitative data.
High school coaches scored much higher than college level coaches in democratic behavior.
Junior high coaches were significantly lower in training and instruction than either high school or college coaches.
There were significant differences between the three levels.
When breaking down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze the data.The scale uses 60 statements, which were preceded by In coaching, I: A Likert scale was then given for each statement: 1 = never; 2 = seldom; 3 = occasionally; 4 = often; and 5 = always. Scales were administered in a number of environmental settings: classrooms, gymnasiums, practice fields, and offices.The internal consistency for each section was calculated: 0.84 for training and instruction; 0.66 for democratic; 0.70 for autocratic; 0.52 for social support; 0.78 for positive feedback; and 0.69 for situational consideration.The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors.When the six leadership styles were examined separately, there was a significant difference in social support between males and females.Following the information on threats to internal validity, the student provided suggestions regarding how these threats could have been dealt with. Not only does the student know what the weakness of the study are, he provides ways the study could have been improved. Investigating leadership, gender, and coaching level using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale. The purpose of the study was to determine possible differences in leadership behaviors, using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS), between male and female coaches and among different coaching levels. The first hypothesis was that male and female coaches would respond differently to the RLSS in overall leadership behaviors.One thing that was not discussed in this paper is the literature review. The second hypothesis was that differences on the RLSS would occur among coaching levels: junior high, high school, and college.In previous classes we spent more time talking about statistics than the literature review. The sample was nonrandom, including 162 coaches that were chosen on a volunteer basis.That's why you'll see some fairly complex explanations in this paper on the data analysis but no information on the literature review. Within the sample, 118 (0.73) of the coaches were male, while 44 (0.27) were female.Next, the student described specifics about the research design, including the sample, instrumentation, and data analysis.Ecological and population generalizability were discussed. The student spoke at length on threats to internal validity.