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In addition, little is known about policies that may have an impact on student smoking behavior.This study attempted to address these issues through a literature review. To identify relevant studies, the following online databases were searched using specific keywords: Ovid MEDLINE, Psyc INFO, Pub Med, and Google Scholar. However, it is not well understood whether college-level anti-smoking policies help reduce cigarette smoking among students.
Therefore, at their most rudimentary forms, such policies tend to be extensions of local- or state-level policies restricting smoking in public places .
However, some colleges may take a more comprehensive approach, by integrating, for example, smoke-free policies with anti-smoking campaigns and college-sponsored cessation services .
Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming, produce better results in terms of reducing smoking behavior.
Tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, continues to remain a leading preventable cause of mortality in the United States (U. Across different age-groups, young adults (18–29 year olds) tend to show the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking .
However, primary and secondary prevention efforts focusing on young adults have been less common.
This is particularly of concern because tobacco industry is known to market tobacco products strategically to promote tobacco use among young adults by integrating tobacco use into activities and places that are relevant to young adults .Most studies represented more women than men and more Whites than individuals of other ethnic/racial groups.The majority (54.5%) of the studies evaluated 100% smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policies.Young adulthood is also the period that facilitates continued intermittent or occasional smoking , neither of which is safe.In addition to the possibility that intermittent smokers may show escalation in nicotine dependence, intermittent smoking exposes individuals to carcinogens and induces adverse physiological consequences .For example, past-30-day prevalence of cigarette smoking among 18–24 year olds is 17%, whereas the prevalence is approximately 9% among high school students .Although most smokers initiate cigarette smoking in adolescence, young adulthood is the period during which experimenters transition into regular use and develop nicotine dependence .For example, students tend to spend the majority of their time on campus premises.In fact, in the case of 4-year colleges, a large number of students live on or around campus premises.That is, 100% smoke-free policies were found to reduce cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence twice as much as partial smoke-free policies that allowed smoking in certain areas.  found that although national restrictions on smoking in public places may improve cardiovascular health outcomes and reduce smoking-related mortality, their effects on smoking behavior appear inconsistent.There are reasons why college anti-smoking policies may be more effective than policies focused on restaurant/bars or even workplaces.