The International Amateur Athletic Federation estimates that only 10–15% of participating athletes are tested in each major competition.
investigated the suggestion that athletes face a kind of prisoner’s dilemma regarding drugs.
Far from being against the spirit of sport, biological manipulation embodies the human spirit—the capacity to improve ourselves on the basis of reason and judgment.
When we exercise our reason, we do what only humans do.
Studies involving the anabolic steroid androgen showed that, even in doses much lower than those used by athletes, muscular strength could be improved by 5–20%.
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Most athletes are also relatively unlikely to ever undergo testing.
Yet despite the health risks, and despite the regulating bodies’ attempts to eliminate drugs from sport, the use of illegal substances is widely known to be rife.
It hardly raises an eyebrow now when some famous athlete fails a dope test.
In 1992, Vicky Rabinowicz interviewed small groups of athletes.
She found that Olympic athletes, in general, believed that most successful athletes were using banned substances.