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Important contributions to the science of anatomy were made by the last and most influential of the great ancient medical practitioners, Greek physician Claudius Galen (A. Nevertheless, he was the first to observe that muscles work in opposing pairs: for every muscle that causes a joint to bend, there is an opposing muscle that restores the joint to its original position.Through experiments, Galen observed and described two groundbreaking anatomical events: (1) paralysis resulting from the cutting of the spinal cord and (2) the process by which urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder.
Together with Erasistratus, Herophilus established the disciplines of anatomy and physiology (the science that deals with the function of the body’s parts and organs).
In his studies of the heart and blood vessels, Erasistratus came very close to working out the circulatory system of the blood.
A later theory proposing that all of the body’s tissues are composed of cells was the basis for the science of cytology.
Histology, or the study of tissues (structured groups of specialized cells), began in earnest in the 1700s with the work of French scientist Xavier Bichat (1771–1802).
In 1543, Vesalius published one of the most important books in medical history and the world’s first textbook of anatomy, On the Structure of the Human Body.
The Anatomy Of The Heart Essay 250 Word Essay On What Is Your Favorite Food By
The book contains detailed anatomical descriptions of all parts of the human body, directions for carrying out dissections, and meticulously drawn illustrations.The science of anatomy was further advanced by the work of English physicist Robert Hooke (1635–1703).His 1665 publication Micrographia describes the structures of insects, fossils, and plants in detail from his microscopic studies.He was the first to discover that blood flows in a continuous circle from the heart to the arteries to the veins and back to the heart.Harvey published this radical new concept of blood circulation in 1628.Bichat found that organs were built up out of different types of simpler structures, and each of these simpler structures could occur in more than one organ.He further noted that different tissues have specific properties and are thereby vulnerable to tissue-specific diseases.In his observations about the heart and blood vessels, however, Galen made critical errors that remained virtually unchallenged for 1,400 years.He mistakenly believed that blood was formed in the liver and was circulated throughout the body by the veins.Attempts to understand the structure of living things go as far back as Aristotle (384–322 B. His dissection (cutting into pieces to examine the parts) and study of animals and plants led to his formation of a classification system that was used by scientists for almost 2,000 years.Some of the first human dissections were carried out by Greek anatomists and physicians Herophilus (late fourth century B. Herophilus made many anatomical studies of the brain.