For example, physical and sexual violence may be more prevalent in schools in contexts where it is also more prevalent in wider society.
Studies suggest that sexual violence and harassment of girls is worse in schools where other forms of violence are prevalent, and in conflict and emergency contexts, In their paper "Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior," Connell, Morris and Piquero identify three primary aspects of a child's life- family, school and peers- as major indicators to whether or not that child exhibits behavior akin to bullying.
Bystanders who witness repeated victimizations of peers can experience negative effects similar to the victimized children themselves." While most bullies, in the long term, grow up to be emotionally functional adults, many have an increased risk of developing antisocial personality disorder, which is linked to an increased risk of committing criminal acts (including domestic violence).
The educational effects on victims of school violence and bullying are significant.
According to the paper which reviews the previous research on the causes of school bullying, following external factors and internal factors might bring about bullying.
External factors include less relational mobility due to closed curriculum and environment, peer pressure, lack of bullying prohibition rules that every classmate shares, absence of supervisors, and so on.
Bullying can have a wide spectrum of effects on a student including anger, depression, stress, and suicide.
Additionally, the bully can develop different social disorders or have a higher chance of engaging in criminal activity.
Boredom in school involves a student who does not have anything else to do other than bully.
Poor antibullying practices may include teachers and staff not caring enough to intervene, or a school not having enough teachers for students.