Williams Thesis On Slavery

Williams Thesis On Slavery-39
I wish to thank the Newberry Li- brary, Chicago, for its kindness in making it possible for me, through an inter-library loan with Founders' Library, Howard University, to see Sir Charles Whitworth's valuable statistics on "State of the Trade of Great Britain in its imports and ex- ports, progressively from the year 1697-1773." My research has been facilitated by grants from different sources: the Trinidad Government, which extended an original scholarship; Oxford University, which awarded me two Senior Studentships; the Beit Fund for the study of British Colonial History, which made two grants; and the Julius Rosenwald Foundation, which awarded me fellowships in 19. Ragatz of George Washington University in this city, Professor Frank W. Sir William Cecil, the famous Elizabe- than statesman, denied the Pope's right "to give and take king- doms to whomsoever he pleased." In 1580 the English govern- ment countered with the principle of effective occupation as the determinant of sovereignty. ." 2 Eng- land, France, and even Holland, began to challenge the Iberian Axis and claim their place in the sun. Pitman of Pomona College, Claremont, California, and Professor Melville J. 1 Thereafter, in the parlance of the day, there was "no peace below the line." It was a dispute, in the words of a later governor of Barbados, as to "whether the King of England or of France shall be monarch of the West Indies, for the King of Spain cannot hold it long. The Negro, too, was to have his place, though he did not ask for it: it was the broiling sun of the sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations of the New World. He wrote^a strong letter to the Tsar on the subject.

I wish to thank the Newberry Li- brary, Chicago, for its kindness in making it possible for me, through an inter-library loan with Founders' Library, Howard University, to see Sir Charles Whitworth's valuable statistics on "State of the Trade of Great Britain in its imports and ex- ports, progressively from the year 1697-1773." My research has been facilitated by grants from different sources: the Trinidad Government, which extended an original scholarship; Oxford University, which awarded me two Senior Studentships; the Beit Fund for the study of British Colonial History, which made two grants; and the Julius Rosenwald Foundation, which awarded me fellowships in 19. Ragatz of George Washington University in this city, Professor Frank W. Sir William Cecil, the famous Elizabe- than statesman, denied the Pope's right "to give and take king- doms to whomsoever he pleased." In 1580 the English govern- ment countered with the principle of effective occupation as the determinant of sovereignty. ." 2 Eng- land, France, and even Holland, began to challenge the Iberian Axis and claim their place in the sun. Pitman of Pomona College, Claremont, California, and Professor Melville J. 1 Thereafter, in the parlance of the day, there was "no peace below the line." It was a dispute, in the words of a later governor of Barbados, as to "whether the King of England or of France shall be monarch of the West Indies, for the King of Spain cannot hold it long. The Negro, too, was to have his place, though he did not ask for it: it was the broiling sun of the sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations of the New World. He wrote^a strong letter to the Tsar on the subject.

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Prohibited from employing slave labor by trustees who, in some instances, themselves owned slaves in other colonies, the Georgian planters found them- selves in the position, as Whitefield phrased it, of pepple whose legs were tied and were told to walk.

So the Georgia magistrates drank toasts "to the one thing needful" slavery until the ban was lifted.

Every age rewrites history, but particularly ours, which has been forced by events to re-evaluate our conceptions of history and economic and political development. The "Commercial Part of the Nation" and Slavery 169 n. Portu- gal, which had initiated the movement of international expan- sion, claimed the new territories on the ground that they fell within the scope of a papal bull of 1455 authorizing her to re- duce to servitude all infidel peoples.

The progress of the Industrial Revolution has been treated more or less ade- quately in many books both learned and popular, and its lessons are fairly well established in the consciousness of 'the educated class in general and of those people in particular who are re- sponsible for the creation and guidance of informed opinion. The Development of British Capitalism, 1783-1833 126 8. The two powers, to avoid controversy, sought arbitration and, as Catholics, turned to the Pope a natural and logical step in an age when the universal claims of the Papacy were still unchallenged by individuals and governments.

Arrived in Australia, however, where land was plentiful too plentiful the laborers preferred to work for themselves as small proprietors, rather than under the capitalist for wages.

Austra- lia was not England, and the capitalist was left without a serv- ant to make his bed or fetch him water. It made the American South and the Caribbean islands. becoming used to the idea of sacrificing human life to the deity of increased production." 10 Adam Smith, the intellectual champion of the industrial mid- 6 CAPITALISM AND SLAVERY die class with its new-found doctrine of freedom, later propa- gated the argument that it was, in general, pride and love of power in the master that led to slavery and that, in those countries where slaves were employed, free labor would be more profitable. Seen in historical perspective, it forms a part of that general picture of the harsh treatment of the underprivileged classes, the unsympa- thetic poor laws and severe feudal laws, and the indifference with which the rising capitalist class was "beginning to reckon prosperity in terms of pounds sterling, and . Universal experience demonstrated con- clusively that "the work done by slaves, though it appears to cost only their maintenance, is in the end the dearest of any. Peel, who took 50,000 and three hundred laborers with him to the Swan River colony in Australia. His plan was that his laborers would work for him, as in the old country. Without this compulsion, the laborer would otherwise exercise his natural inclination to work his own land and toil on his own account. The story is frequently told of the great English capitalist, Mr. On the other hand, while material has been accumulated and books have been written about the period which preceded the Industrial Revolution, the world-wide and interrelated nature of the commerce of that period, its direct effect upon the de- velopment of the Industrial Revolution, and the heritage which it has left even upon the civilization of today have not any- where been placed in compact and yet comprehensive perspec- tive. After carefully sifting the rival claims, the Pope issued in 1493 a series of papal bulls which established a line of demarcation between the colonial possessions of the two states: the East went to Portugal and the West to Spain. This study is an attempt to do so, without, however, fail- ing to give indications of the economic origin of well-known social, political, and even intellectual currents. The partition, however, failed to satisfy Portuguese aspirations and in the sub- sequent year the contending parties reached a more satisfactory compromise in the Treaty of Tordesillas, which rectified the papal judgment to permit Portuguese ownership of Brazil. But in the early stages of colonial devel- opment, other things are not equal. When slavery is adopted, it is not adopted as the choice over free labor; there is no choice at all.

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